AP US History

Table of Contents

1 Student Packet 2019-2020

1.1 Notes and Testing Schedule

1.1.1 Unit 1: Chapters 2-3

 Date       Day              Pages   Content                                            
 19 Aug   
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Monday      
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    40-56 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Columbian Exchange                               
 - outwork                                          
 - mercantilism                                     
 - Jamestown                                        
 - House of Burgesses                               
 - royal colony                                     
 - development of tobacco                           
 - Lord Baltimore                                   
 - Maryland Toleration Act                          
 - headright system                                 
 - indentured servant                               
 - social development                               
 - African labor                                    
 20 Aug   
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Tuesday     
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    56-62 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - New France                                       
 - New Netherlands                                  
 - Puritan Philosophy and Plymouth Colony           
 - Mayflower Compact                                
 - Massachusetts Bay Colony                         
 - Pre-Destination                                  
 - Roger Williams                                   
 - Anne Hutchinson                                  
 - Conneticut                                       
 21 Aug   
          
          
          
          
          
 Wednesday   
             
             
             
             
             
    63-72 
          
          
          
          
          
 - Salem Witch Trials                               
 - town meetings                                    
 - Puritan Society                                  
 - King Phillip's War                               
 - Pequot War                                       
 - Bacon's Rebellion                                
 22 Aug   
          
          
          
          
          
 Thursday    
             
             
             
             
             
    80-88 
          
          
          
          
          
 - Restoration Colonies                             
 - Penn & the Quakers                               
 - Navigation Acts                                  
 - Dominion of New England                          
 - Theories of John Locke                           
 - Results of the Glorious Revolution               
 23 Aug   
          
          
          
 Friday      
             
             
             
    88-97 
          
          
          
 - South Atlantic System                            
 - Middle Passage                                   
 - Beginnings of Slavery & Impact on the Chesapeake 
 - Chesapeake Social Development                    
 26 Aug   
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Monday      
             
             
             
             
             
             
   97-111 
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - African Slave Culture & Resistance               
 - Stono Rebellion                                  
 - Foundations for Northern Economy                 
 - Colonial Assemblies                              
 - Salutary Neglect                                 
 - Georgia                                          
 - Mercantilism                                     
 27 Aug     Tuesday       No Notes   Study for Exam                                     
 *28 Aug*   *Wednesday*     *Exam*   *Exam Unit 1*                                      

1.1.2 Unit 2: Chapters 4-6

 Date       Day            Pages   Content                                               
 28 Aug   
          
          
          
          
 Wednesday 
           
           
           
           
  114-128 
          
          
          
          
 - Freehold Society                                    
 - Quakers                                             
 - Early Immigrants                                    
 - Religious Beliefs                                   
 - Enlightenment in America                            
 29 Aug   
          
          
          
          
 Thursday  
           
           
           
           
  129-135 
          
          
          
          
 - Great Awakening                                     
 - Whitefield                                          
 - Edwards                                             
 - Old Lights                                          
 - New Lights                                          
 30 Aug   
          
          
          
 Friday    
           
           
           
  135-140 
          
          
          
 - French & Indian War                                 
 - Pontiac's Uprising                                  
 - Albany Plan of the Union                            
 - Treaty of Paris (1763)                              
 2 Sep    
          
          
 Monday    
           
           
  140-143 
          
          
 - Paxton Boys                                         
 - Regulators                                          
 - results of the French and Indian War                
 3 Sep    
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Tuesday   
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  152-160 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Proclamation of 1763                                
 - Sugar Act                                           
 - Stamp Act                                           
 - Stamp Act Congress                                  
 - Quartering Act                                      
 - Sons of Liberty                                     
 - Ideological Differences (3 total)                   
 - John Dickinson                                      
 4 Sep    
          
          
          
          
 Wednesday 
           
           
           
           
  160-167 
          
          
          
          
 - Declatory Act                                       
 - Townshend Acts                                      
 - Sons of Liberty                                     
 - Daughters of Liberty                                
 - Boston Massacre                                     
 5 Sep    
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Thursday  
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  168-179 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Committees of correspondence                        
 - Tea Act                                             
 - Boston Tea Party                                    
 - Intolerable or Coercive Acts                        
 - Quebec Act                                          
 - First Contintental Congress                         
 - Loyalists                                           
 - Olive Branch Petition                               
 - Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition 
 - Prohibitory Act                                     
 - /Common Sense/                                      
 - Declaration of Independence                         
 6 Sep    
          
          
 Friday    
           
           
  182-196 
          
          
 - War finances                                        
 - Treaty of Alliance                                  
 - Treaty of Paris (Revolutionary War)                 
 9 Sep    
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Monday    
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  196-200 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Republican institutions                             
 - mixed government                                    
 - state constitutions                                 
 - debate about "mob rule"                             
 - Women's Rights                                      
 - Abigail Adammms                                     
 - Judith Sargent Murray                               
 - fate of the Loyalists                               
 - Native Americans                                    
 - Slaves                                              
 10 Sep   
          
          
          
 Tuesday   
           
           
           
  200-204 
          
          
          
 - Articles of Confederation                           
 - western land expansion                              
 - land ordinances                                     
 - Shay's Rebellion                                    
 11 Sep   
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 Wednesday 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
  204-211 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Constitutional Convention                           
 - Virginia and New Jersey Plans                       
 - debate about slavery                                
 - Great Compromise                                    
 - Three-Fifths Compromise                             
 - The Federalists                                     
 - Antifederalists                                     
 - /Federalist Papers/                                 
 - Washington's cabinet                                
 - The Bill of Rights                                  
 12 Sep     Thursday    No Notes   Study for Exam Unit 2                                 
 *13 Sep*   *Friday*      *Exam*   *Exam Unit 2*                                         

1.1.3 Unit 3: Chapters 7-9

 Date      Day             Pages   Content                                    
 13 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
 Friday     
            
            
            
            
            
  214-219 
          
          
          
          
          
 - Executive departments                    
 - Judiciary Act of 1789                    
 - Bill of Rights                           
 - Hamilton's economic program              
 - Bank of U.S.                             
 - Jefferson's agricultural vision          
 16 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Monday     
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  219-226 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Proclamation of Neutrality               
 - French Revolution's effect on U.S.       
 - Whiskey Rebellion                        
 - Jay's Treaty                             
 - Haitian Revolution                       
 - Election of 1796                         
 - Political Parties                        
 - XYZ Affair                               
 - Alien and Sedition Acts                  
 - Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions        
 - Revolution of 1800                       
 17 Sep  
         
         
         
         
 Tuesday    
            
            
            
            
  226-231 
          
          
          
          
 - Battle of Fallen Timbers                 
 - Treaty of Greenville                     
 - Native American assimilation             
 - Eli Whitney                              
 - The Cotton Gin                           
 18 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Wednesday  
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  231-234 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Virginia Dynasty                         
 - John Marshall                            
 - /Marbury v. Madison/                     
 - Judiciary Act of 1801                    
 - Jefferson's Presidency                   
 - Pinckey Treaty                           
 - Louisiana Purchase                       
 - Lewis & Clark                            
 - Effect on New England Federalists        
 - Burr duel and conspiracy                 
 19 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Thursday   
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  234-241 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Impressment                              
 - Chesapeake-Leopard Affair                
 - Embargo of 1807                          
 - Non-Intercourse Act                      
 - Macon's Bill No. 2                       
 - War Hawks                                
 - Causes of War of 1812                    
 - Federalist Opposition to the War of 1812 
 - Hartford Convention                      
 - The Treaty of Ghent                      
 - Jackson's Victory at New Orleans         
 20 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Friday     
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  241-245 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Marshall's philosophy                    
 - /Marbury v. Madison/                     
 - /McCulloch v. Maryland/                  
 - /Gibbons v. Ogden/                       
 - /Fletcher v. Peck/                       
 - /Dartmouth College v. Woodward/          
 - Era of Good Feelings                     
 - John Quincy Adams                        
 - Rush-Bagot Treaty                        
 - Adams-Onis Treaty                        
 - Monroe Doctrine                          
 23 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Monday     
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  250-258 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Bank of the United States                
 - Panic of 1819                            
 - manufacturing                            
 - transportation                           
 - turnpikes                                
 - Cr\egrave{}vecoeur                       
 - Social Mobility in America               
 - voting rights for men                    
 24 Sep  
         
         
         
         
 Tuesday    
            
            
            
            
  258-264 
          
          
          
          
 - Republican Motherhood                    
 - parenting                                
 - early education                          
 - Noah Webster                             
 - Washington Irving                        
 25 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Wednesday  
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  264-276 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Manumission                              
 - gradual emancipation                     
 - justification for slavery                
 - Prosser's Rebellion                      
 - American Colonization Society            
 - Tallmadge Amendment                      
 - slavery                                  
 - national politics                        
 - Missouri Compromise                      
 - 2nd Great Awakening                      
 26 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
 Thursday   
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
            
  286-292 
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
 - Industrial Revolution                    
 - The Factory System                       
 - Samuel Colt                              
 - Cyrus McCormick                          
 - British v. American manufacturing        
 - Waltham-Lowell System                    
 - Eli Whitney                              
 - development of labor unions              
 - /Commonwealth v. Hunt/                   
 27 Sep  
         
         
         
         
         
 Friday     
            
            
            
            
            
  292-301 
          
          
          
          
          
 - Erie Canal                               
 - Robert Fulton                            
 - The Steamboat                            
 - /Gibbons v. Ogden/                       
 - John Deere                               
 - railroad construction                    
 30 Sep  
         
         
         
         
 Monday     
            
            
            
            
  301-306 
          
          
          
          
 - Business Elite                           
 - Middle Class                             
 - James Fennimore Cooper                   
 - Urban Poor                               
 - Benevolent Empire                        
 1 Oct   
         
         
         
         
 Tuesday    
            
            
            
            
  306-311 
          
          
          
          
 - 2nd Great Awakening                      
 - Charles Finney                           
 - Temperance                               
 - Nativism                                 
 - Catholicism                              
 2 Oct     Wednesday    No Notes   Study for Exam Unit 3                      
 *3 Oct*   *Thursday*     *Exam*   *Exam Unit 3*                              

1.1.4 Unit 4: Chapters 10-11

1.1.5 Unit 5: Chapters 12-14

1.1.6 Unit 6: Chapters 15-16

1.1.7 Unit 7: Chapters 17-18

1.1.8 Unit 8: Chapters 19-20

1.1.9 Unit 9: Chapters 21-22

1.1.10 Unit 10: Chapters 23-24

1.1.11 Unit 11: Chapters 25-26

1.1.12 Unit 12: Chapters 27-28

1.1.13 Unit 13: Chapters 29-31

1.2 Vocabulary

1.2.1 Unit 1: Chapters 2-3

1.2.2 Unit 2: Chapters 4-6

1.2.3 Unit 3: Chapters 7-9

1.2.4 Unit 4: Chapters 10-11

1.2.5 Unit 5: Chapters 12-14

1.2.6 Unit 6: Chapters 15-16

1.2.7 Unit 7: Chapters 17-18

1.2.8 Unit 8: Chapters 19-20

1.2.9 Unit 9: Chapters 21-22

1.2.10 Unit 10: Chapters 23-24

1.2.11 Unit 11: Chapters 25-26

1.2.12 Unit 12: Chapters 27-28

1.2.13 Unit 13: Chapters 29-31

1.3 Study Guides

1.3.1 Unit 1

1.3.2 Unit 2

1.3.3 Unit 3

1.3.4 Unit 4

1.3.5 Unit 5

1.3.6 Unit 6

1.3.7 Unit 7

1.3.8 Unit 8

1.3.9 Unit 9

1.3.10 Unit 10

1.3.11 Unit 11

1.3.12 Unit 12

1.3.13 Unit 13

2 American Experiments

In the 1660s, legislators in Virginia and Maryland hammered out the definition of chattel slavery.

chattel slavery: a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought and sold like property

In 1662, a law in Virgina was created that based whether a child should be free or a slave on the status of its mother. This was contrary to England. Slavery had been obsolete in England for a while and even then status of a child was based on its father.

By 1770 there were 3 different types of colonies in the Americas:

tribute colonies
Relied on wealth and labor of indigenous people
plantation colonies
Sugar and tropical crop production via bound labor
neo-Europes
Attempt recreation the life/system of Europe

2.1 Spain's Tribute Colonies

Europe became interested in the Americas due to the massive amount of wealth held by the Aztecs and Incas. They were able to overthrow the previous rulers and then siphon the wealth back to Europe. With this, more parts of Europe became interested in the Americas, and that interest formed the Columbian Exchange.

2.1.1 A New American World

After the Spanish conquistadors toppled the previous rulers, Spain gave them tribute in return for the Aztec and Inca wealth. The vast amount of silver in the two civilizations was transported to China to be used as currency. In exchange, China gave Spain many goods, including silk, spices, and cermaics. The gold in Spain was mainly used for gilding churches. However, the overflow of wealth eventually caused heavy inflation.

Many Spaniards came to the Americas during this time. They brought Spanish tradition with them, which the native people resisted. Even though priests were trying to convert indigenous peoples to Catholicism, indigenous ideas and expectations found their way into a new "Native American Christianity".

2.1.2 The Columbian Exchange

Due to the influx of the Spanish people, new diseases from Europe and Africa entered The Americas. This caused populations in densely populated areas to drop by 90% or more. On islands and in the tropical lowlands, the native population was often wiped out altogether. The only significant disease that travelled in the opposite direction was Syphilis. All of this was part of a larger biological transformation called the Columbian Exchange.

Columbian Exchange: the massive global exchange of living things, including people, animals, plants, and diseases, between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that began after the voyages of Columbus

Usually, the livestock went to the west and the crops went to the east. This introduced populations in Eurasia, for example, the Chinese, to crops like maize and potatoes.

2.1.3 The Protestant Challenge to Spain

Spain struggled to control its American colonies. Enemies or pirates were always disrupting the Caribbean Basin. The Caribbean Basin was very important to Spain's shipping routes. After the Protestant Reformation and the schism that followed, Spain's powerful enemies even more resented the strict Catholicism of Spain.

King Philip II, at that time the ruler of Spain, was consistently attempting to root out challenges to the Catholic Church. However, a Calvinist revolt in 1566 separated seven northern provinces, then wealthy from textile manufacturing, from Spain, and united them into what is now Holland.

In 1534, English king Henry VIII was seeking an annulment to his marriage with the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon. When the Catholic Church refused, he tore away from it and appointed himself as the head of the new Church of England. However, Henry's daughter, Elizabeth, due to the large increase in Protestantism, later put into effect a mix of the Angelican Church and Protestantism.

Elizabeth was opposed to the Spanish control of American wealth as well. She supported "sea dogs" like Francis Drake, who was able to disrupt a Spanish shipping to Manilla in 1577 and returned with goods valued 47× the investment.

Elizabeth also supported ruthless military rule over Catholic Ireland. England brutally massacred thousands of Irish. Philip tried to counter these attacks by sending 130 ships with 30,000 men, but he was swiftly defeated by a strong storm and a much more powerful English fleet.

Philip wanted to spend all of his wealth on religious wars, leaving no resources available for Spain's own fledgling industries. At the turn of the 17th century, Spain faced a serious economic decline.

Contrasting Spain, England grew significantly in population and success. English merchants were creating an outwork textile industry.

outwork: a system of manufacturing, also known as putting out, where work was outsourced to more poverished people

The government helped these textile entrepreneurs by setting low minimum wage and giving them monopolies in foreign markets. State-assisted manufacturing became known as mercantilism.

mercantilism: a system of political economy based on government regulation

By encouraging production, exports outweighed imports, and England's economy grew. By 1600, England was wealthy and powerful enough to challenge Spain's control over the Western Hemisphere.

2.2 Plantation Colonies

While Spain was struggling with its tribute settlements, Portugal, England, France, and the Netherlands created successful plantation settlements in Brazil, Jamestown, Maryland, and the Caribbean islands.

2.2.1 Brazil's Sugar Plantations

By 1590, there were more than 1000 sugar mills established in Pernambuco and Bahia (eastern current-day Brazil). The style of labor being performed at these plantations was similar to the style of Industrial Revolution-era factories.

Originally, it was hoped that the indigenous population would provide enough work force to fully operate the plantations, but after a wave of smallpox in 1559 the planters had to turn to African slaves. Since the slave trade was continuously growing, the switch completed by 1620.

2.2.2 England's Tobacco Colonies

England was slow to embrace American colonies, especially after multiple failed privately-organized attempts in the 1580s.

  1. The Jamestown Settlement

    Merchants then took charge of English Expansion. In 1606, King James I granted the Virginia Company of London a large stretch of land on the east coast of the present-day United States. In 1607 the Virgina Company set off a group with no intention of self-sufficiency, as they expected to be able to extract tribute from the indigenous peoples.

    Unfortunately, the team settled down in a rather poor spot, not fit for planting crops, and with no access to fresh water. Many of the men died of famine.

    When word of the survivors' plan to overthrow the native population reached the chief, Powhatan, he tried to bargain and instead expected equal tribute from the incoming settlers. Unfortunately this did not sit well with the settlers.

    This war was followed by the discovery of tobacco, which would become a cash crop much like sugar in Brazil.

    To try and foster migration, the Virginia Company created a rudimentary government and a House of Burgesses that would encompass the representatives. Virginia became a "Royal Colony"; the king took ownership, the religion officially became Anglicism.

  2. The Indian War of 1622

    The native population led a suprise attack on the settlers, killing a third of their population, but then the settlers fought back hard and completely seized most food sources. The settlers won.

  3. Lord Baltimore Settles Catholics in Maryland

    Maryland was originally a colony made for Catholicism. It was proprietary; wasn't owned by the king but instead privately. In this case it was created and operated Lord Baltimore.

    Because of the wide range of faiths taking hold Maryland, a neighboring colony, Baltimore had to enact the Toleration Act which allowed and protected all forms of Christianity in Maryland.

2.2.3 The Caribbean Islands

The English, French, and Dutch were looking for spots to take in the Caribbean to loosen the Spanish hold on the area, as well as to generate a cash crop. The English and French eventually were working together to drive the native Caribs from St. Christopher.

In 1655, an English fleet captured Jamaica, one of the larger islands and at the time under Spanish control. It was opened to English settlement.

After much testing, in the 1640s it was decided that sugar was the best to farm in the region.

2.2.4 Plantation Life

While plantations were small at first, it was much more efficient to employ many slaves over a large area of land. By performing better as a planter you also earned access to more land. The demand for tobacco was high, so plantations got bigger and bigger.

Conditions were harsh. 60% of children were without one or both parents before 13.

  1. Indentured Servitude

    The prospect of owning land attracted new settlers. Some were too poor to make the journey to Americas, so merchants persuaded them into indentured servitude.

    indentured servitude: contracted work for a specified amount of time, in exchange for passage along the Atlantic, with free status at the end of the working period

    Being an indentured servant was tough work and often as an indentured servant you would not make it to the end of your working period. Indentured servants were worked ruthlessly to maximize gains, and if they disobeyed or ran away they would either be sold or have their working period extended.

    Out of the half of indentured servants that completed their working period, most did not escape poverty. Only a quarter of all indentured servants ever achieved their dream of owning successful property in America.

  2. African Laborers

    African slave labor became much cheaper than indentured servitude, and much more available due to the Columbian Exchange. Because of the declining price for tobacco, plantation owners needed to make tobacco as cheaply as possible.

    There came a point, starting in the 1620s, where indentured servants weren't in enough supply to keep up with the demand. By 1671, leaders in Virginia were passing laws to discriminate by color. The House of Burgesses was passing laws that made the African slaves inferior in every way.

2.3 Neo-European Colonies

Colonies that replicated the lifestyle of Europe started appearing along the North American Atlantic coast. Initially, Dutch, French, and English sailors were looking for a passage through to Asia, but soon they became interested in the land itself.

2.3.1 New France

In the 1530s, Jacques Cartier claimed land along the St. Lawrence River for France. It went unused until 1608 when Samuel de Champlain set up the first fur-trading post of what is now Quebec. By having a trading post the French gained abundant access to the spoils of North American land.

The French also wanted to convert the native people. The priests, most of them Jesuits, put effort into learning the native languages and culture, and the natives respected them for it. However, they became skeptical and even hateful of the priests because they instead seemed to bring disease and drought.

While New France was a great trading colony, it lacked any farming. In 1662, King Louis XIV turned New France into a royal colony and subsidized the migration of indentured servants. Contrary to the English servants, which had laborious work for up to 7 years and were left in poverty, French servants only had to work for 3 years and could eventually lease a farm of their own.

2.3.2 New Netherland

The success of the Dutch in European banking, insurance, and finance meaned that the Dutch had an incredibly large control over commerce. The Dutch, in fact, had so much influence that they were able to conquest Portuguese forts in Africa and Indonesia and sugar plantations in Brazil.

The Dutch wanted to look for a passage to the East Indies. While searching by travelling the rivers of North America, the delegated English mariner, Henry Hudson, observed that the coasts of North America were a "fur bonanza".

New Netherland eventually flourished as a fur-trading enterprise, just like New France. The Dutch however were less respectful to the natives of their area, and there were deadly wars between the Algonquian-speaking natives and the colonists. The colonists had to resort to total war, killing and maiming hundreds of men, women, and children, to not be wiped out.

2.3.3 The Rise of the Iroquois

The Iroquois had access to guns from Dutch merchants. They were able to overpower and drive out other Native American tribes. New France had to go into an all out war with all of the surrounding tribes, and eventually all were defeated and had to concede to what the French wanted.

2.3.4 New England

New England was all about Protestant Calvinists looking for a new home away from Europe. Most of the groups travelling to New England were much more prepared than the other Neo-European Colonies, especially due to the balanced sex ratio.

  1. The Pilgrims

    England's then-current king threatened to drive Puritans out of the land. So, they decided to do it themselves, and move to America. They created their own constitution called the Mayflower Compact that based the political structure the Puritans' self-governing religious congregation.

    When King Charles I dissolved Parliament and claimed divine right, many more Puritans came to America.

    Puritans: dissenters from the Church of England who wanted a genuine reformation rather than the partial Reformation sought by Henry VIII

  2. John Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay

    John Winthrop was one of the leaders that drew a lot of Puritans to America. He led over 900 people to Massachusets Bay and became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

    "We must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill. The eyes of all people are upon us." – John Winthrop

    This colony specifically restricted governmental decisions to Puritans. Unlike the Pilgrims, which believed in separation of church and state, the Massachusetts Bay Colony completely combined church and state.

  3. Roger Williams and Rhode Island

    The Massachusetts Bay colony wanted to get rid of anyone who didn't agree with their beliefs. One of those people was Roger Williams. He thought that the belief that God decided everything was nonsensical, that the seizure of Native American lands was unethical, and most importantly that the church and state should be separated.

    Williams and his followers later settled 50 miles south, and as well obtained a corporate charter from Parliament to create a new colony.

  4. Anne Hutchinson

    Anne Hutchinson had wildly different values than most Puritans, and as a woman she was increasingly looked down upon. She believed in being able to communicate with God yourself, and having total free will.

  5. Puritanism and Witchcraft

    Puritans believed that the world was full of supernatural forces. The Puritans were suspicious of people who tried to manipulate these forces.

    An example of how policies like death for witchcraft can cause mass hysteria is the Salem Witch Trials. 175 people were tried and 19 were executed on claims of witchcraft.

2.4 Instability, War, and Rebellion

Every colony had its own periods of instability that sometimes involved violence.

2.4.1 New England's Indian Wars

Native Americans already had inter-tribe conflicts before the colonists arrived, and the colonists only added to the problems.

  1. Puritan-Pequot War

    The Pequots were allied with the Dutch, so they were a particular nuisance to the English. Violent encounters began in July 1636 and escalated until May 1637 when Massachusetts and Conneticut combined along with Narragansett and Mohegan warriors to attack a Pequot village. They massacred over 500 men, women, and children.

    Believing they were "God's chosen people", the Puritans thought that their presence, success, and decisions were divinely ordained.

  2. Metacom's War

    The native Wampanoag population felt outnumbered by the European population. They tried to protect themselves but got continually bitter at being disadvantaged. Eventually both sides showed aggression and the Wampanoags lost.

2.4.2 Bacon's Rebellion

At the same time New England was struggling with its wars, Virgina faced a rebellion that nearly toppled the government. By the 1670s, a small percentage of the population held nearly all of the wealth and had control of who land was given to. This meant that now-freed indentured servants found it even harder to acquire land.

At the top of the social pyramid was governor William Berkeley. To consolidate his power, he gave large land grants to his council, who in turn chose to exempt those lands from taxation. At this point, half of all white men were landless freemen. The property owning yeomen retained their voting rights, but were still angered by falling tobacco prices, political corruption, and grievous taxations that threatened the commonwealth.

  1. Frontier War

    A conflict with the Native American population ignited the social rebellion. The landless former servants wanted to settle on the native lands as they had nowhere else to go. A vigilante band of Virginian men murdered 30 natives, and from there the conflict escalated. The Susquehannocks had to retaliate, and they did so by destroying plantations and killing 300 whites.

  2. Challenging the Government

    Nathaniel Bacon held a position in Berkeley's council, but he empathized with the poor and the natives. He was shut out of the council when he differed with Berkeley on native affairs. At this point, Bacon had an army of supporters. That army forced his release from arrest. They also forced a legislative election process.

    Unfortunately this came too late. Bacon's army started destroying towns, burning Jamestown to the ground, and plundering the plantations of Berkeley's allies.

    When Bacon suddenly died of dyssentery in October 1676, Berkeley took revenge, but also took steps to protect the poor and the natives to make sure something like this wouldn't happen again.

3 The British Atlantic World

For two weeks in June 1744, a massive conference was held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania meant to resolve grivances between the Iroquois and the settlers. Many more conferences came with it around that time showing how much the colonies sought to extend their power in North America.

3.1 Colonies to Empire

Following the English civil war, where England released its fine hold on what colonies did, plantation owners and Puritan magistrates started making their own rules. After the restoration in 1660, beaurocrats tried to impose order on the "unruly" colonies.

3.1.1 The Restoration Colonies and Imperial Expansion

King Charles II wanted to expand English power in Asia and America. In 1662, he initiated new outposts in America by authorizing eight noblemen to settle Carolina. A year later, he conquered New Netherland and gave it to his brother James, who became the Duke and renamed it to New York. James then gave part of it to William Penn, who named that part as Pennsylvania.

  1. The Carolinas

    TODO

  2. William Penn and Pennsylvania

    TODO

3.1.2 From Mercantilism to Imperial Dominion

TODO

  1. The Navigation Acts

    TODO

  2. The Dominion of New England

    TODO

3.1.3 The Glorious Revolution in England and America

TODO

  1. Rebellions in America

    TODO

3.2 Imperial Wars and Native Peoples

TODO

3.2.1 Tribalization

TODO

3.2.2 Indian Goals

TODO

3.3 The Imperial Slave Economy

TODO

3.3.1 The South Atlantic System

TODO

  1. England and the West Indies

    TODO

  2. The Impact on Britain

    TODO

3.3.2 Africa, Africans, and the Slave Trade

TODO

  1. Afraicans and the Slave Trade

    TODO

  2. The Middle Passage and Beyond

    TODO

3.3.3 Slavery in the Chesapeake and South Carolina

TODO

3.3.4 An African American Community Emerges

TODO

  1. Building Community

    TODO

  2. Resistance and Accommodation

    TODO

  3. The Stono Rebellion

    TODO

3.3.5 The Rise of the Southern Gentry

TODO

  1. White Identity and Equality

    TODO

3.4 The Northern Maritime Economy

TODO

3.4.1 The Urban Economy

TODO

3.4.2 Urban Society

TODO

3.5 The New Politics of Empire

TODO

3.5.1 The Rise of Colonial Assemblies

TODO

3.5.2 Salutary Neglect

TODO

3.5.3 Protecting the Mercantile System

TODO

3.5.4 Mercantilism and the American Colonies

TODO

4 Growth, Diversity, and Conflict

People started moving to the restoration colonies like the Carolinas to escape the poverty of their home countries. Cultural movements like the Enlightenment were furthering this as well.

4.1 New England's Freehold Society

In the 1630s, when the Puritans left England, the nobles and elites held 75% of the land. The others, tenants and property-less farmers, worked on the land. However, since the population had significantly grown since then, by 1750 this "freehod" ideal was threatened.

4.1.1 Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy

The Puritans placed the husband at the head of the house, and very rarely gave women any semblance of equality to men. From an early age, girls saw how their mothers were bound by a web of legal and cultural restrictions.

4.1.2 Farm Property: Inheritance

Marriage in this time allowed the husband to gain full control over all of his wife's property and possesions.

4.1.3 Freehold Society in Crisis

The increasing population, doubling each generation, meant that families were no longer able to provide adequate support for every child under the freehold system. Soon, children started working in artisan crafts instead of just farming.

4.2 Diversity in the Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies were New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

4.2.1 Economic Growth, Opportunity, and Conflict

TODO

  1. Conflict in the Quaker Colonies

    TODO

4.2.2 Cultural Diversity

TODO

  1. The German Influx

    TODO

  2. Scots-Irish Settlers

    TODO

4.2.3 Religion and Politics

TODO

4.3 Commerce, Culture, and Identity

After 1720, when transatlantic shipping grew much more frequent, ideals like the Enlightenment and Pietism reached the American world.

4.3.1 Transportation and the Print Revolution

TODO

4.3.2 The Enlightenment in America

TODO

  1. The European Enlightenment

    TODO

  2. Franklin's Contributions

    TODO

4.3.3 American Pietism and the Great Awakening

TODO

  1. New England Revivalism

    TODO

  2. Whitefield's Great Awakening

    TODO

4.3.4 Religious Upheaval in the North

TODO

4.3.5 Social and Religious Conflict in the South

TODO

  1. The Presbyterian Revival

    TODO

  2. The Baptist Insurgency

    TODO

4.4 The Midcentury Challenge: War, Trade, and Social Conflict

TODO

4.4.1 The French and Indian War

TODO

  1. Conflict in the Ohio Valley

    TODO

  2. The Albany Congress

    TODO

  3. The War Hawks Win

    TODO

4.4.2 The Great War for Empire

TODO

4.4.3 British Industrial Growth and the Consumer Revolution

TODO

4.4.4 The Struggle for Land in the East

TODO

4.4.5 Western Rebels and Regulators

TODO

  1. The South Carolina Regulators

    TODO

  2. Civil Strife in North Carolina

    TODO

5 The Problem of Empire

TODO

5.1 An Empire Transformed

TODO

5.1.1 The Costs of Empire

TODO

5.1.2 George Grenville and the Reform Impulse

TODO

  1. The Sugar Act

    TODO

  2. The End of Salutary Neglect

    TODO

5.1.3 An Open Challenge: The Stamp Act

TODO

5.2 The Dynamics of Rebellion

American Patriots started performing protests against British reform.

5.2.1 Formal Protests and the Politics of the Crowd

TODO

  1. The Stamp Act Congress

    TODO

  2. Crowd Actions

    TODO

  3. The Motives of the Crowd

    TODO

5.2.2 The Ideological Roots of Resistance

TODO

5.2.3 Another Kind of Freedom

TODO

5.2.4 Parliament and Patriots Square Off Again

TODO

  1. Chorles Townshend Steps In

    TODO

  2. A Second Boycott and the Daughters of Liberty

    TODO

  3. Troops to Boston

    TODO

5.2.5 The Problem of the West

TODO

5.2.6 Parliament Wavers

TODO

  1. The Boston Massacre

    TODO

  2. Sovereignty Debated

    TODO

5.3 The Road to Independence

After the repeal of the Townsend duties in 1770, there appeared to be peace, but mutual distrust between the colonists and the British Empire lay below the surface. In 1773, this distrust formed into conflict.

5.3.1 A Compromise Repudiated

TODO

  1. The East India Company and the Tea Act

    TODO

  2. The Tea Party and the Coercive Acts

    TODO

5.3.2 The Continental Congress Responds

TODO

5.3.3 The Rising of the Countryside

TODO

  1. The Continental Association

    TODO

  2. Southern Planters Fear Dependency

    TODO

5.3.4 Loyalists and Neutrals

TODO

5.4 Violence East and West

By 1774, more and more colonies were starting to reject British authority, and Britain's control over the colonists was wavering.

5.4.1 Lord Dunmore's War

TODO

5.4.2 Armed Resistance in Massachusets

While the Continental Congress was gathering in Philadelphia in September 1774, Massachusets was avidly protesting British authority.

Battles were soon faught in Lexington and Concord. The British ended up heavily defeated and even ambushed on their way back to supposed safety.

5.4.3 The Second Continental Congress Organizes for War

TODO

  1. Congress Versus King George

    TODO

  2. Fighting in the South

    TODO

  3. Occupying Kentucky

    TODO

5.4.4 Thomas Paine's Common Sense

TODO

5.4.5 Independence Declared

Inspired by Paine, the colonists wanted to desperately break free from Britain's rule. Richard Henry Lee proposed that the colonies should unite and be free states from Britain.

On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved and signed.

6 Making War and Republican Governments

TODO

6.1 The Trials of War

TODO

6.1.1 War in the North

TODO

6.1.2 Armies and Strategies

TODO

6.1.3 Victory at Saratoga

TODO

6.1.4 The Perils of War

TODO

6.1.5 Financial Crisis

TODO

6.1.6 Valley Forge

TODO

6.2 The Path to Victory

TODO

6.2.1 The French Alliance

TODO

6.2.2 War in the South

TODO

  1. Britain's Southern Strategy

    TODO

  2. Guerrilla Warfare in the Carolinas

    TODO

6.2.3 The Patriot Advantage

TODO

6.2.4 Diplomatic Triumph

TODO

6.3 Creating Republican Institutions

TODO

6.3.1 The State Constitutions: How Much Democracy?

TODO

6.3.2 Women Seek a Public Voice

TODO

6.3.3 The War's Losers: Loyalists, Native Americans, and Slaves

TODO

6.3.4 The Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation were written in 1777, during the Revolutionary War. It was not ratified by all the states until 1781. Due to tyrannical experiences with England, it was created to spread the power among the states.

Powers
The Articles of Confederation gave the National Government the powers to:
  • declare war
  • negotiate treaties
  • manage foreign affairs
  • coin money
  • establish postal system
  • establish military
Limits
The Articles of Confederation imposed certain limits on the National Government:
  • no power to enforce laws
  • no power to tax
  • no national court system
  • no power to regulate trade
  • no power to put tariffs on foreign goods
  • no executive
  1. Continuing Fiscal Crisis

    TODO

  2. The Northwest Ordinance

    TODO

6.3.5 Shays's Rebellion

TODO

6.4 The Constitution of 1787

The issues caused by the Articles of Confederation led to the creation of the U.S. Constitution. The Constitution was very controversial, partly due to its huge difference from the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution was all about giving the states most of the power but the federal government the most important powers.

6.4.1 The Rise of a Nationalist Faction

TODO

6.4.2 The Philadelphia Convention

In 1787, the states were supposed to meet to revise the Articles of Confederation. Rhode Island didn't have any delegate show up, so instead the other twelve states decided to try and draft a new framework of government. This meeting ended up being known as the Constitutional Convention.

  1. The Virginia and New Jersey Plans

    All of the delegates wanted a stronger national government, especially one that had the power to tax and make laws for all of the states. They wanted to accomplish this by separating the government into executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

    Madison's Virgina Plan
    Favored by larger states:
    • favor supremacy of the national government
    • national government established by people
    • lower house representatives were elected by people in the states
    • number of lower house representatives based on population
    • upper house representatives were chosen by the lower house
    • an executive and judiciary chosen by entire legislature
    The New Jersey Plan
    Proposed by the smaller states:
    • states have power to control own laws and guarantee equality
    • each state would have one vote in unicameral congress
    • the congress selects an executive committee
    • executive comittee appoints national judiciary
    • state legislatures appoint representatives to congress

    The smaller states didn't like the Virgina Plan, and the larger states didn't like the New Jersey Plan.

  2. The Great Compromise

    The Great Compromise was the name given to the system of having a split House and Senate. The House had representation based on population, while the Senate had an equal two representatives from each state.

  3. Negotiations over Slavery

    The southern states wanted slaves to count towards the population, but the northern states didn't. The 3/5 Compromise was enacted, where slaves counted as 3/5 of a person. This counted both for representation and taxation.

  4. National Authority

    TODO

6.4.3 The People Debate Ratification

Because the delegates knew that some states would reject the constitution, they arbitrarily declared that it only had to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states to take effect.

  1. The Antifederalists

    The opponents of the Constitution were labeled Antifederalists. They feared the central government would be run primarily by wealthy men; they felt that the Constitution threatened their yeoman society.

  2. Federalists Respond

    TODO

  3. The Constitution Ratified

    The strong resistance to the Constitution from the Antifederalist population in Massachusetts was in part solved by the Federalists reassuring that there would be an ammended national bill of rights.

7 Hammering Out a Federal Republic

TODO

7.1 The Political Crisis of the 1790s

TODO

7.1.1 The Federalists Implement the Constitution

TODO

  1. Devising the New Government

    TODO

  2. The Bill of Rights

    TODO

7.1.2 Hamilton's Financial Program

TODO

  1. Public Credit: Redemption and Assumption

    TODO

  2. Creating a National Bank

    TODO

  3. Raising Revenue Through Tariffs

    TODO

7.1.3 Jefferson's Agrarian Vision

TODO

7.1.4 The French Revolution Divides Americans

TODO

  1. Ideological Politics

    TODO

  2. Jay's Treaty

    TODO

  3. The Haitian Revolution

    TODO

7.1.5 The Rise of Political Parties

TODO

  1. The Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts of 1798

    TODO

  2. The "Revolution of 1800"

    TODO

7.2 A Republican Empire Is Born

TODO

7.2.1 Sham Treaties and Indian Lands

TODO

  1. The Treaty of Greenville

    TODO

  2. Assimilation Rejected

    TODO

7.2.2 Migration and the Changing Farm Economy

TODO

  1. Southern Migrants

    TODO

  2. Exodus from New England

    TODO

  3. Innovation on Eastern Farms

    TODO

7.2.3 The Jefferson Presidency

TODO

7.2.4 Jefferson and the West

TODO

  1. The Louisiana Purchase

    TODO

  2. Secessionist Schemes

    TODO

  3. Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandans and Sioux

    TODO

7.3 The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics

TODO

7.3.1 Conflict in the Atlantic and the West

TODO

  1. The Embargo of 1807

    TODO

  2. Western War Hawks

    TODO

7.3.2 The War of 1812

TODO

  1. Federalists Oppose the War

    TODO

  2. Peace Overtures and a Final Victory

    TODO

7.3.3 The Federalist Legacy

TODO

  1. Marshall's Federalist Law

    TODO

  2. Asserting National Supremacy

    TODO

  3. Upholding Vested Property Rights

    TODO

  4. The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams

    TODO

8 Creating a Republican Culture

TODO

8.1 The Capitalist Commonwealth

TODO

8.1.1 Banks, Manufacturing, and Markets

TODO

  1. Banking and Credit

    TODO

  2. Rural Manufacturing

    TODO

  3. New Transportation Systems

    TODO

8.1.2 Public Enterprise: The Commonwealth System

TODO

8.2 Toward a Democratic Republican Culture

TODO

8.2.1 Opportunity and Equality–for White Men

TODO

8.2.2 Toward Republican Families

TODO

  1. Republican Marriages

    TODO

  2. Republican Motherhood

    TODO

8.2.3 Raising Republican Children

TODO

  1. Two Modes of Parenting

    TODO

  2. Debates over Education

    TODO

  3. Promoting Cultural Independence

    TODO

8.3 Aristocratic Republicanism and Slavery

TODO

8.3.1 The Revolution and Slavery

TODO

  1. Manumission and Gradual Emancipation

    TODO

  2. Slavery Defended

    TODO

8.3.2 The North and South Grow Apart

TODO

  1. Slavery and National Politics

    TODO

  2. African Americans Speak Out

    TODO

8.3.3 The Missouri Crisis

TODO

  1. Constitutional Issues

    TODO

8.4 Protestant Christianity as a Social Force

TODO

8.4.1 A Republican Religious Order

TODO

  1. Religious Freedom

    TODO

  2. Church-State Relations

    TODO

  3. Republican Church Institutions

    TODO

8.4.2 The Second Great Awakening

TODO

  1. A New Religious Landscape

    TODO

  2. Black Christianity

    TODO

8.4.3 Religion and Reform

TODO

8.4.4 Women's New Religious Roles

TODO

8.4.5 A Growing Public Presence

TODO

9 Transforming the Economy

TODO

9.1 The American Industrial Revolution

TODO

9.1.1 The Division of Labor and the Factory

Entrepreneurs created the modern factory which used power machines and the assembly line. This allowed for goods to be produced more efficiently and in larger numbers, as workers did not have to be skilled. Factories moved to cities due to the stationary steam engine, enabling entrepreneurs to take advantage of the cheap labor.

9.1.2 The Textile Industry and British Competition

American industrial leaders wanted to copy and improve British methods of manufacturing.

  1. American and British Advantages

    The differences in America and Britain led to manufacturing differences. The British had many advantages over America in that:

    • textiles were cheaper to ship
    • interest rates were lower such that it was easier to get loans
    • textiles were well established and could engage in price warfare such that prices were constantly pushed lower
    • workers could be paid less due to the larger population and lesser amount of land
    • it was illegal for any engineer or mechanic to leave Britain to keep Britain at the top

    The United States had one main advantage: more natural resources on much more land.

  2. Better Machines, Cheaper Workers

    TODO

9.1.3 American Mechanics and Technological Innovation

TODO

9.1.4 Wageworkers and the Labor Movement

TODO

  1. Free Workers Form Unions

    TODO

  2. Labor Ideology

    TODO

9.2 The Market Revolution

TODO

9.2.1 The Transportation Revolution Forges Regional Ties

TODO

  1. Canals and Steamboats Shrink Distance

    TODO

  2. Railroads Link the North and Midwest

    TODO

9.2.2 The Growth of Cities and Towns

TODO

9.3 New Social Classes and Cultures

TODO

9.3.1 The Business Elite

TODO

9.3.2 The Middle Class

TODO

9.3.3 Urban Workers and the Poor

TODO

9.3.4 The Benevolent Empire

TODO

9.3.5 Charles Grandison Finney: Revivalism and Reform

TODO

  1. Evangelical Beliefs

    TODO

  2. Temperance

    TODO

9.3.6 Immigration and Cultural Conflict

TODO

  1. Irish Poverty

    TODO

  2. Nativism

    TODO

10 A Democratic Revolution

TODO

10.1 The Rise of Popular Politics

TODO

10.1.1 The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties

TODO

  1. The Rise of Democracy

    TODO

  2. Parties Take Command

    With more "uneducated" voters the process of winning elections evolved. Van Buren "fathered" this new process and even got ahead by spreading information via papers. Van Buren knew that since many people didn't have latent knowledge about politics he had to explain political views through other means. Eventually it was decided that caucuses would determine the chosen candidate.

    The 3 "P"s of Van Buren:

    • platform
    • patronage
    • party discipline

10.1.2 The Election of 1824

When nobody wins the electoral majority the House votes for the president. Henry Clay, who was in fourth, influenced the members to vote for John Quincy Adams. When Adams won, he made Clay the Secretary of State.

10.1.3 The Last Notable President: John Quincy Adams

TODO

  1. The Fate of Adams's Policies

    TODO

  2. The Tariff Battle

    TODO

10.1.4 "The Democracy" and the Election of 1828

TODO

10.2 The Jacksonian Presidency

TODO

10.2.1 Jackson's Agenda: Rotation and Decentralization

TODO

10.2.2 The Tariff and Nullification

TODO

10.2.3 The Bank War

TODO

  1. Jackson's Bank Veto

    TODO

  2. The Bank Destroyed

    TODO

10.2.4 Indian Removal

TODO

  1. Cherokee Resistance

    TODO

  2. The Removal Act and Its Aftermath

    TODO

10.2.5 The Jacksonian Impact

TODO

  1. The Taney Court

    TODO

  2. States Revise Their Constitutions

    TODO

10.3 Class, Culture, and the Second Party System

TODO

10.3.1 The Whig Worldview

TODO

  1. Calhoun's Dissent

    TODO

  2. Anti-Masons Become Whigs

    TODO

10.3.2 Labor Politics and the Depression of 1837–1843

TODO

10.3.3 "Tipecanoe and Tyler Too!"

TODO

  1. The Log Cabin Campaign

    TODO

  2. Tyler Subverts the Whig Agenda

    TODO

11 Religion and Reform

TODO

11.1 Individualism: The Ethic of the Middle Class

TODO

11.1.1 Ralph Waldo Emerson and Transcendentalism

TODO

11.1.2 Emerson's Literary Influence

TODO

  1. Thoreau, Fuller, and Whitman

    TODO

  2. Darker Visions

    TODO

11.2 Rural Communalism and Urban Popular Culture

TODO

11.2.1 The Utopian Impulse

TODO

  1. Mother Ann and the Shakers

    TODO

  2. Albert Brisbane and Fourierism

    TODO

  3. John Humphrey Noyes and Oneida

    TODO

11.2.2 Joseph Smith and the Mormon Experience

TODO

  1. Joseph Smith

    TODO

  2. Bringham Young and Utah

    TODO

11.2.3 Urban Popular Culture

TODO

  1. Sex in the City

    TODO

  2. Minstrelsy

    TODO

  3. Immigrant Masses and Nativist Reaction

    TODO

11.3 Abolitionism

TODO

11.3.1 Black Social Thought

TODO

  1. David Walker's Appeal

    TODO

  2. Nat Turner's Revolt

    TODO

11.3.2 Evangelical Abolitionism

TODO

  1. William Lloyd Garrison, Theodore Weld, and Angelina and Sarah Grimké

    TODO

  2. The American Anti-Slavery Society

    TODO

11.3.3 Opposition and Internal Conflict

TODO

  1. Attacks on Abolitionism

    TODO

  2. Internal Divisions

    TODO

11.4 The Women's Rights Movement

TODO

11.4.1 Origins of the Women's Movement

TODO

  1. Moral Reform

    TODO

  2. Improving Prisons, Creating Asylums, Expanding Education

    TODO

11.4.2 From Black Rights to Women's Rights

TODO

  1. Abolitionist Women

    TODO

  2. Seneca Falls and Beyond

    TODO

12 The South Expands: Slavery and Society

At the start of the 1800s, many plantation owners in the Carolinas wanted to move westwards to states like Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas. Despite the wealth of these new plantation owners, much of it was spent on expansion rather than living a luxurious life.

12.1 The Domestic Slave Trade

The federal government played a role in moving Native Americans out of the new slave states to make more room for plantations.

12.1.1 The Upper South Exports Slave

The more northern slave states exported slaves to the newer plantation states to fuel the domestic slave trade and the southern economy.

12.1.2 The Impact on Blacks

More and more, slaves were treated as simple property; a slave that underperformed would simply be sold and replaced. If a slave marriage was to take place, then usually slave owners would sell off one or both of the slaves involved.

Some slaveowners used being "benevolent masters" as a defense of slavery. They claimed by taking in slaves, the slaves had a home, nourishment, and the loyal ones were allowed to have (and more importantly care for) a family.

12.2 The World of Southern Whites

Due to this new slave economy, the south started to be governed by the slave-owning whites who held most of the wealth. This was in stark contrast to the American yeomen, who ranked among the "lowest rungs of the nation's social order."

12.2.1 The Dual Cultures of the Planter Elite

The movement to the west created two distinct groups of slaveowners: the traditional tobacco and rice farmers, and the new cotton farmers.

  1. The Traditional Southern Gentry

    These traditional planters took on a life of "republican aristocracy." They became the head of politics and were essentially the nobility of the southern states.

  2. Cotton Entrepreneurs

    TODO

12.2.2 Planters, Smallholding Yeomen, and Tenants

TODO

  1. Planter Elites

    TODO

  2. Smallholding Planters and Yeomen

    TODO

  3. Poor Freemen

    TODO

12.3 Expanding and Governing the South

TODO

12.3.1 The Settlement of Texas

TODO

12.3.2 The Politics of Democracy

TODO

  1. Taxation Policy

    TODO

  2. The Paradox of Southern Prosperity

    TODO

12.4 The African American World

The slaves of the 1820s kept a culture similar to their West African ancestors, mainly due to the fact that whites discouraged assimilation, but also because they prized their unique culture.

12.4.1 Evangelical Black Protestantism

As the Second Great Awakening swept over America, thousands of white families, each with their hundreds of enslaved blacks, were converted to Christianity.

  1. African Religions and Christian Conversion

    Much of the preaching at this time avoided the idea of unthinking obedience; it pushed for racial equality.

  2. Black Worship

    TODO

12.4.2 Forging Families and Communities

TODO

12.4.3 Negotiating Rights

TODO

  1. Working Lives

    TODO

  2. Survival Strategies

    TODO

12.4.4 The Free Black Population

The number of free blacks began to grow substantially as the mid-1800s approached.

  1. Northern Blacks

    TODO

  2. Standing for Freedom in the South

    TODO

13 Expansion, War, and Sectional Crisis

TODO

13.1 Manifest Destiny: South and North

TODO

13.1.1 The Push to the Pacific

TODO

  1. Oregon

    TODO

  2. California

    TODO

13.1.2 The Plains Indians

TODO

13.1.3 The Fateful Election of 1844

TODO

13.2 War, Expansion, and Slavery

TODO

13.2.1 The War with Mexico

TODO

  1. Polk's Expansionist Program

    TODO

  2. American Military Successes

    TODO

13.2.2 A Divisive Victory

TODO

  1. The Wilmot Proviso

    TODO

  2. Free Soil

    TODO

  3. The Election of 1848

    TODO

13.2.3 California Gold and Racial Warfare

TODO

  1. The Forty-Niners

    TODO

13.2.4 Racial Warfare and Land Rights

TODO

13.2.5 1850: Crisis and Compromise

TODO

  1. Constitutional Conflict

    TODO

  2. A Complex Compromise

    TODO

13.3 The End of the Second Party System

TODO

13.3.1 Resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act

TODO

13.3.2 The Whigs Disintegrate and New Parties Rise

TODO

  1. Proslavery Initiatives

    TODO

  2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

    TODO

  3. The Republican and American Parties

    TODO

  4. Bleeding Kansas

    TODO

13.3.3 Buchanan's Failed Presidency

TODO

  1. The Election of 1856

    TODO

  2. Dred Scott: Petitioner for Freedom

    TODO

13.4 Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Triumph

TODO

13.4.1 Lincoln's Political Career

TODO

  1. An Ambitious Politician

    TODO

  2. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    TODO

13.4.2 The Union Under Siege

TODO

  1. The Rise of Radicalism

    TODO

  2. The Election of 1860

    TODO

14 Two Societies at War

TODO

14.1 Secession and Military Stalemate

TODO

14.1.1 The Secession Crisis

TODO

  1. The Lower South Secedes

    TODO

  2. The Crittenden Compromise

    TODO

14.1.2 The Upper South Chooses Sides

TODO

14.1.3 Setting War Objectives and Devising Strategies

TODO

  1. Union Thrusts Toward Richmond

    TODO

  2. Lee Moves North: Antietam

    TODO

  3. The War in the Mississippi Valley

    TODO

14.2 Toward Total War

TODO

14.2.1 Mobilizing Armies and Civilians

TODO

  1. The Military Draft

    TODO

  2. Women in Wartime

    TODO

14.2.2 Mobilizing Resources

TODO

  1. Republican Economic and Fiscal Policies

    TODO

  2. The South Resorts to Coercion and Inflation

    TODO

14.3 The Turning Point: 1863

TODO

14.3.1 Emancipation

TODO

  1. "Contrabands"

    TODO

  2. The Emancipation Proclamation

    TODO

14.3.2 Vicksburg and Gettysburg

TODO

  1. The Battle for the Mississippi

    TODO

  2. Lee's Advance and Defeat

    TODO

14.4 The Union Victorious

TODO

14.4.1 Soldiers and Strategy

TODO

  1. The Impact of Black Troops

    TODO

  2. Capable Generals Take Command

    TODO

  3. Stalemate

    TODO

14.4.2 The Election of 1864 and Sherman's March

TODO

  1. The National Union Party Versus the Peace Democrats

    TODO

  2. The Fall of Atlanta and Lincoln's Victory

    TODO

  3. William Tecumseh Sherman: "Hard War" Warrior

    TODO

  4. The Confederate Collapse

    TODO

15 Reconstruction

TODO

15.1 The Struggle for National Reconstruction

TODO

15.1.1 Presidential Approaches: From Lincoln to Johnson

TODO

15.1.2 Congress Versus the President

TODO

15.1.3 Radical Reconstruction

TODO

  1. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

    TODO

  2. Election of 1868 and the Fifteenth Amendment

    TODO

15.1.4 Woman Suffrage Denied

TODO

15.2 The Meaning of Freedom

TODO

15.2.1 The Quest for Land

TODO

  1. Freed Slaves and Northerners: Conflicting Goals

    TODO

  2. Wage Labor and Sharecropping

    TODO

15.2.2 Republican Governments in the South

TODO

15.2.3 Building Black Communities

TODO

15.3 The Undoing of Reconstruction

TODO

15.3.1 The Republicans Unravel

TODO

  1. The Disillusioned Liberals

    TODO

15.3.2 Counterrevolution in the South

TODO

15.3.3 Reconstruction Rolled Back

TODO

  1. The Supreme Court Rejects Equal Rights

    TODO

  2. The Political Crisis of 1877

    TODO

15.3.4 Lasting Legacies

TODO

16 Conquering a Continent

TODO

16.1 The Republican Vision

TODO

16.1.1 The New Union and the World

TODO

16.1.2 Integrating the National Economy

TODO

  1. Tariffs and Economic Growth

    TODO

16.2 Incorporating the West

TODO

16.2.1 Mining Empires

TODO

16.2.2 Cattlemen on the Plains

TODO

16.2.3 Homesteaders

TODO

  1. Women in the West

    TODO

  2. Environmental Challenges

    TODO

16.2.4 The First National Park

TODO

16.3 A Harvest of Blood: Native Peoples Dispossessed

TODO

16.3.1 The Civil War and Indians on the Plains

TODO

16.3.2 Grant's Peace Policy

TODO

  1. Indian Boarding Schools

    TODO

  2. Breaking Up Tribal Lands

    TODO

16.3.3 The End of Armed Resistance

TODO

16.3.4 Strategies of Survival

TODO

16.3.5 Western Myths and Realities

TODO

17 Industrial America: Corporations and Conflicts

TODO

17.1 The Rise of Big Business

TODO

17.1.1 Innovators in Enterprise

TODO

  1. Production and Sales

    TODO

  2. Standard Oil and the Rise of the Trusts

    TODO

  3. Assessing the Industrialists

    TODO

  4. A National Consumer Culture

    TODO

17.1.2 The Corporate Workplace

TODO

  1. Managers and Salesmen

    TODO

  2. Women in the Corporate Office

    TODO

17.1.3 On the Shop Floor

TODO

  1. Health Hazards and Pollution

    TODO

  2. Unskilled Labor and Discrimination

    TODO

17.2 Immigrants, East and West

TODO

17.2.1 Newcomers from Europe

TODO

17.2.2 Asian Americans and Exclusion

TODO

17.3 Labor Gets Organized

TODO

17.3.1 The Emergence of a Labor Movement

TODO

17.3.2 The Knights of Labor

TODO

17.3.3 Farmers and Workers: The Cooperative Alliance

TODO

17.3.4 Another Path: The American Federation of Labor

TODO

18 The Victorians Make the Modern

TODO

18.1 Commerce and Culture

TODO

18.1.1 Consumer Spaces

TODO

18.1.2 Masculinity and the Rise of Sports

TODO

  1. "Muscular Christianity"

    TODO

  2. America's Game

    TODO

  3. Rise of the Negro Leagues

    TODO

  4. American Football

    TODO

18.1.3 The Great Outdoors

TODO

18.2 Women, Men, and the Solitude of Self

TODO

18.2.1 Changes in Family Life

TODO

18.2.2 Education

TODO

18.2.3 From Domesticity to Women's Rights

TODO

  1. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union

    TODO

  2. Women, Race, and Patriotism

    TODO

  3. Women's Rights

    TODO

18.3 Science and Faith

TODO

18.3.1 Darwinism and Its Critics

TODO

18.3.2 Realism in the Arts

TODO

18.3.3 Religion: Diversity and Innovation

TODO

  1. Immigrant Faiths

    TODO

  2. Protestant Innovations

    TODO

19 "Civilization's Inferno": The Rise and Reform of Industrial Cities

TODO

19.1 The New Metropolis

TODO

19.1.1 The Shape of the Industrial City

TODO

  1. Mass Transit

    TODO

  2. Skyscrapers

    TODO

  3. The Electric City

    TODO

19.1.2 Newcomers and Neighborhoods

TODO

19.1.3 City Cultures

TODO

  1. Urban Amusements

    TODO

  2. Ragtime and City Blues

    TODO

  3. Sex and the City

    TODO

  4. High Culture

    TODO

  5. Urban Journalism

    TODO

19.2 Governing the Great City

TODO

19.2.1 Urban Machines

TODO

19.2.2 The Limits of Machine Government

TODO

Date: 2019-12-02 Mon

Author: Soren

Created: 2019-12-02 Mon 17:54

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